The Historical Radio Society of Australia    Incorporated in Victoria A22838K
Terms and Conditions

Safety, Disclaimer and Copyright Notice

This website and publications by the Historical Radio Society of Australia Inc. contain articles, circuitry and advice regarding radios and associated equipment that may be mains-operated.

Electrical Safety is your responsibility
Appliances connect to mains voltages at lethal levels, and/or generate dangerous voltages and constitute a serious hazard which could result in electrocution.
Any modifications alterations or servicing of Radios and associated equipment must only be attempted by qualified persons. In addition, an isolation transformer must be used at all times when AC/DC or other transformerless appliances are connected to the mains power supply.

Power off and disconnected
Any work carried out on radios and devices should be done with the power turned off and the power plug removed from the wall socket. In the case of devices (including TVs) with high DC voltages generated internally, a discharge resistor can be carefully used across the DC after switching off, to ensure there is zero volts.

No voltage is safe
Additionally all equipment described herein powered from the AC mains can cause electrical shocks of a less severe nature than electrocution. Electrical shocks commonly cause involuntary reflex actions and these reflex actions may result in personal injury. Users of this publication are advised to take all reasonable precautions to avoid electrical shock when working on all types of radio equipment.

Electrical Safety Law
Any devices for sale in HRSA sales and Auctions or other outlets like Ebay, whether private sales or HRSA sales are required to have an Electrical safety notice attached. In Victoria the prescribed wording is:


Cutting off the cord or plug is not an acceptable alternative.
Some believe that cutting the mains cord or plug off absolves them of the need to have the above label. Not so. In fact many collectors are highly disappointed if the plug or lead is cut off, as then they have to search for an authentic replacement.

Know the Health risks
Some older heatsinking materials, capacitors and internal filling materials used in Radios are known carcinogens. Users of this website or HRSA publications are advised to be aware of hazardous carcinogenic materials and to treat such materials in accordance with Industry Occupational Health and Safety legislation, recommendations and guidelines. Users should, where possible, obtain manufacturers' instructions relating to safe working practice and shall observe those instructions.

Note a few radios, especially some models nicknamed “Empire State” contain Asbestos. Even a number of 1950s radios and Radiograms had an Asbestos heat shield.

Published as a service, with no responsibility.
The many authors in the Historical Radio Society of Australia Inc. publications and websites use care and diligence in the preparation and selection of all articles and photographs appearing in its publications and web.
BUT the HRSA is not responsible or liable for any loss or injury as a result of any mistake, misdescription, misprint, or typographical error AND is not responsible for any loss or injury suffered by any person who relies wholly or in part upon any article, circuit, or advice of any nature contained herein. The content of articles are believed to have been correct at the time of publishing.

HRSA is not the superior authority
No part of this work shall be held as a superior authority to Manufacturer’s documentation. This work shall not be held as an authority in any manner where specific legislation, regulations, instructions or documented work practices are in force. This work shall not be held as an authority regarding safety in the workplace or regarding safety in any other context whatsoever.

This publication or website or any portion thereof may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without written permission of the publisher and author (i.e. The HRSA).
The articles, drawings, logos and images are believed to be in the public domain and/or out of copyright, due to the time since they were produced, and/or the intention by the manufacturer/author to make the information freely available. If an author believes their rights have been infringed, please write to us, quoting the specific example.

Trademarks, Registered Names and any and all other Proprietary matter within this publication remain the sole property of their owners. Illustrations attributed to owners are used by permission and remain the sole property of those owners.
Some circuit diagrams have been copied from online sites and other sources. Copyright for such diagrams is retained by the owners.

Page maintained by Kevin Poulter. Last update November 2018